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Teori Gestalt dalam Desain Grafis

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Desain grafis merupakan cabang ilmu dari seni visual yang tidak bisa lepas dari ilmu psikologi. Peran psikologi dalam desain grafis meliputi bagaimana seseorang secara psikis merespon tampilan visual disekitarnya. Oleh karena itu, mempelajari teori psikologi sangat dianjurkan bagi desainer grafis untuk menciptakan tampilan visual yang cerdas dan efektif. Salah satu teori psikologi yang paling populer dan banyak digunakan dalam desain grafis adalah teori Gestalt.





Gestalt merupakan sebuah teori psikologi yang menyatakan bahwa seseorang akan cenderung mengelompokkan apa dia lihat disekitarnya menjadi suatu kesatuan utuh berdasarkan pola, hubungan, dan kemiripan. Teori ini dibangun oleh 3 ilmuwan asal Jerman yaitu: Kurt Koffka, Max Wertheimer, and Wolfgang Köhler.


Gestalt dalam Desain Grafis

Gestalt banyak digunakan dalam desain grafis karena menjelaskan bagaimana persepsi visual bisa terbentuk. Prinsip-prinsip Gestalt yang banyak diterapkan dalam desain grafis antara lain adalah proximity (kedekatan posisi), similarity (kesamaan bentuk), closure (penutupan bentuk), continuity (kesinambungan pola), dan figure Ground.

1. Proximity (kedekatan posisi)
Objek-objek yang berdekatan posisinya akan dikelompokkan sebagai suatu kesatuan.

Teori Gestalt dalam Desain Grafis

Objek-objek pada logo unilever diatas dipersepsikan sebagai sebuah kelompok (huruf 'U') karena memiliki kedekatan posisi satu sama lain.


2. Similarity (kesamaan bentuk)
Objek-objek yang bentuk dan elemennya mirip akan dikelompokkan sebagai suatu kesatuan.

Teori Gestalt dalam Desain Grafis

Tiga segitiga di bagian bawah logo diatas sejatinya adalah bagian dari ikon burung di logo tersebut. Namun karena memiliki kesamaan bentuk dengan segitiga lain, objek tersebut dipersepsikan sebagai bagian kelompok segitiga yang membentuk lingkaran.


3. Closure (penutupan bentuk)
Suatu objek akan dianggap utuh walaupun bentuknya tidak tertutup sepenuhnya.

Teori Gestalt dalam Desain Grafis

Kita dapat mengenali bahwa ikon pada logo WWF adalah seekor panda. Padahal, gambar tersebut tidaklah lengkap atau belum tertutup sepenuhnya.


4. Continuity (kesinambungan pola)
Objek akan dipersepsikan sebagai suatu kelompok karena adanya kesinambungan pola.

Teori Gestalt dalam Desain Grafis

Lingkaran-lingkaran diatas dipersepsikan sebagai suatu kelompok karena polanya berkesinambungan. Walaupun sebenarnya objek-objek tersebut terpisah satu sama lain.


5. Figure Ground
Sebuah objek bisa dilihat sebagai dua objek dengan permainan foreground dan background. Masing-masing bisa diidentifikasi sebagai objek tanpa harus membentuknya menjadi solid.

Teori Gestalt dalam Desain Grafis

Gambar diatas ini adalah gambar sebuah objek. Namun dengan memanfaatkan teori figure ground, gambar mampu menampilkan 2 buah objek (objek guci dan siluet wajah)


Gestalt menjelaskan bagaimana secara psikologi seseorang mencerna apa yang dilihatnya. Dengan memahami prinsip kerja kecenderungan persepsi visual manusia melalui Gestalt, desainer dapat memahami bagaimana fungsi sampainya suatu pesan terhadap audiens.

Thanks for reading..semoga bermanfaat!


Tetap update informasi, tips, dan tutorial desain terbaru dengan mengikuti FACEBOOK dan TWITTER Desain Studio!

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126 Responses to “ Teori Gestalt dalam Desain Grafis ”

  1. Hilz says:

    ane mahasiswa psikologi yang gemar sm desain grafis gan...
    mantap bener mmg nih blog...
    salut dah...

  2. nice.. musti belajar psikologi nih..hehe

  3. Komentar ini telah dihapus oleh pengarang.
  4. Saya seorang yang tidak mengerti banyak tentang design..
    Tapi saya pernah berdebat dengan teman mengenai Logo...
    Contoh Logo dengan patennya O warna hitam, ketika Logo tersebut ditempatkan pada dasar hitam... tentu tidak terlihat dan kami beri bayangan putih atau kami tempatkan Logo tersebut didalam Oval putih...
    Teman saya mengatakan itu merubah Image, jadi rubah saja Logo O hitam menjadi Putih....

    Saya mau tanya seharusnya bagai mana? apakah Jawaban Teman saya benar?

  5. @ferry mengubah warna logo agar tetap kelihatan di background tertentu itu benar, logo yg baik tidak hanya hidup dengan warna utamanya saja, andaikan logonya warna biru, suatu saat akan di letakkan di poster dgn background biru, sulit terbaca kan?
    jadi warna logo sah2 saja diganti ke (misalnya)_ warna putih,
    karena desainer yg baik biasanya menyediakan logo dgn berbagai versi warna namun logo tsb harus tetap "hidup" walau tidak menggunakan warna utamanya.

    Contoh http://www.behance.net/gallery/Vier-Photography-Design/6436225

  6. Anonim says:

    TERIMA KASIH BANYAK....

  7. Aiys says:

    maknyusss nich,. jarang gue dapet dr blog lain

  8. Gestalt membantu kita memahami fenomena visual
    http://bit.ly/10nN6Ox

  9. @rollercoaster:
    kalau merubah logo selalu harus berpatokan kepada GSM nya corporate tersebut...namun apabila pada GSM nya tidak ada diterakan aturan penggunaan logo maka caranya mungkin dapat saja kita lakukan dengan memblok background sebatas ukuran logo (lebih besar sedikit dengan memberi kontras dengan warna dasar poster....
    sebab bagaimanapun logo adalah identitas...yang berkaitan erat dengan philosopy corporate tersebut...

  10. Anonim says:

    setuju sama @duta syailendra :)
    tapi biasanya yang memiliki GSM, hanya untuk corporate, dan tentunya di dalam GSM sendiri sudah terdapat larangan2 terhadap pengaplikasian logo tersebut.
    seperti larangan logo di aplikasikan pada background dengan warna yang sama dengan logo itu, atau pada background yang akan menutupi visual logo itu sendiri.

  11. woooww infonya menarik gan, terima kasih banyak

  12. wak terimakasih infonya..
    boleh bagi info tentang buku-buku berbahasa indonesia yang membahas gestal, minta rekomendasinya dong untuk penulisan laporan karya akhir?

  13. Anonim says:

    Thank's. Helpful for me

  14. Kak, mohon maaf apabila saya memberikan pertanyaan saya dalam bahasa inggris...

    When companies change their logo design intentionally due to the varying tastes of consumers every year, are there any considerations upon the design principles that are involved? (E.g. Balance, Contrast, Emphasis, Repetition, Conflict)

    Terima kasih... :)

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